what is diglossia?
Kind of bilingualism: language (“H”) and dialect (“L”) within a region (Ferguson,1959)
utilised in this place and in the whole country.
highly codified —> formal written and spoken language
exclusive to particular community
vernacular —> informal situations (menys)
English —> official language of the United Kingdom
Public events (e.g.: celebrations or speeches) ,
Welsh —> autochthonous language in Wales.
In 2001 —> 5 electoral areas (70%) - Currently —> NONE
Approx. 20% of Welsh population (2.9 million) speak Welsh (Baker & Jones, 1998)
The usage depends on the age (Dixon, 2013)
Due to immigration of English speaking people (menys)
catalonia Languages at the same level:
Spanish —> official language of Spain
Catalan —> autochthonous language
“High” language (nowadays)
“Low” language (Francoism period: 1939-1975)
Catalonia became a bilingual community
Equally used in literature, education, university instruction and speeches by government officials, etc… (menys)
conclusion Wales —> diglossia
English (“high” and the official language of the UK) —> 80% of population
Welsh (“low”) —> 20% of population
Catalonia —> diglossia used to exist; currently bilingualism
Spanish (“high” and the official of Spain)
Catalan (“high” and official of Catalonia)
The percentage of the usage —> depends on personal situation (menys)
references Baker, C. & Jones, S. P. (1998) Encyclopaedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Multilingual Matters
Baker, C. (2011) Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism: 5th Edition: Multilingual Matters
Dixon H. (2013) Welsh language is dying out, research finds [Online]. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/wales/10236221/Welsh-language-is-dying-out-research-finds.html [Accessed: 17/03/2014]
Ferguson, C. (1959). Diglossia. Word 15
Fishman, J. (1967). Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23 (2): 29–38.
Fishman, J. A (1986) The Fergusonian Impact: In Honor of Charles A. Ferguson on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. From phonology to society. 1, Volumen 1. Walter de Gruyter (menys)